The Assam Reorganization (Meghalaya) Act, 1969 was enacted on December 29, 1969 and came into effect in the month of January, 1970 in different dates in order to provide for the constitution in the Assam State of a self-governing Meghalaya State and other issued related with such constitution. The Act states that from the commencement of the Act, Meghalaya State shall be constituted in self-ruling Assam State added with some of the tribal areas specified under the enactment. The executive authority of the so established Meghalaya State shall be in the Governor and such powers shall be performed by him by appointing inferior officers. But any other responsibilities granted under some other official shall not be shifted to the Governor.

The executive authority of the Meghalaya State shall be absolute to the issued connected with the matters were Meghalaya State legislature has the authority to frame rules. But such authority shall be restricted to the extent where the Assam State legislature has the power to formulated rules. From the date of initiation of the Act, the Assam State legislature shall not have power to formulate rules in the areas and subjects under the control of the Meghalaya State. For the purpose of clarity, the Act further states that the executive authority of the Assam State shall be extended to issues where the Meghalaya State does not have the authority to frame rules. The Chief Minister shall be the head of the Council of Ministers to give assistance and guidance to the Governor in discharge of the responsibilities with respect to the State of Meghalaya.

The Governor shall have the power to choose and appoint the Chief Minister and such other ministers as per the provisions of the present Act. The oath and affirmation of the Chief Minister and other ministers shall be done by the Governor according to the first schedule to the Act. The remuneration of the Ministers shall be as prescribed by law or by the Governor. In addition, the Act provides for the appointment of Advocate General to the State of Meghalaya. The Advocate General shall have similar qualifications as that of a High Court Judge. The fundamental duty of the Advocate General shall be to give guidance to the Meghalaya Government with regard to legal questions and to carry out tasks of legal nature and to accomplish such other functions as specified under the enactment. The remuneration of the Governor shall be as settled on by the Governor and the executive functions performed by the Meghalaya Government shall be deemed to be performed under the authority of the Governor.

The Governor is empowered under the Act to frame rules in order to make the matters more expedient and to apportion functions among different ministers. The decisions and determinations of the Government shall be communicated to the Governor by the Chief Minister. The administrative dealings of the Meghalaya State shall also be brought to the notice of the Governor. The Act provides for the establishment of Meghalaya State legislature and the qualifications to be member of the legislature. The mode of paying off the expenditures, allowances and grants are specifically described under the Act. The revenues received and the loans taken shall be dealt under the consolidated fund of the State. A contingency fund is also constituted to tackle with emergency situations. The mode of distribution of revenues shall be decided by issuing an order complying with Article 275 (1) of the Constitution of India. The executive authority of the Meghalaya State shall be performed in strict compliance with the laws formulated by the Parliament. Moreover, necessary directions shall also be issued by the State of Assam to the Meghalaya State wherever essential. The Act states that separate committee shall be formed for the advancement of the Shillong in the educational activities and water supply. The Act modified the Schedule VI of the Constitution of India, Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 and States Reorganization Act, 1956.