THE WILD LIFE PROTECTION ACT, 1972

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Not only have human beings had the right to live on earth. Every living being including animals and plants have every right to have their life on earth. Human beings consider other living being inferior to them. Animals are used mainly by human beings as food. Some other wild animals that are not used for food is used for their fur, skin and certain body parts of wild animals are used as medicines too. The wild animals are often hunted in a great number that many rare species of wild animals face extinction. The graph of endangered species of wild animals increased to a great level that initiated protest from many environmentalists and wild life protection groups. Indian forests are having highest rate of rare species of wild animals that contributes a lot in maintaining biological and environmental balance. The skin and fur of several wild animals especially tigers, bears, wolves, certain high altitude goats are very expensive that have a great international market. This motivates humans to hunt them for pure monetary purpose. Among these wild animals tigers are the species that faces threat to their life. The number of tigers adding up from all the forests in the country is numbered to a lower level and that made country wide protest for taking measures to ensure their life and increase in numbers. As a result the Wild Life Protection Act 1972 was enacted with provisions ensuring protection to wild animals. The act of 1972 was amended in the year 2006 with the insertion of certain new sections. The constitution of National Tiger Conservation Authority is stated in the definition clause of the amendment act 2006. Tiger reserve state is defined as the State having a tiger reserve area. A tiger reserve area is a notified area specified under 38 V. According to section 38 O the tiger conservation authority is vested with certain functions and powers. To analyze and approve the tiger conservation plans put forth by the State Government. The sustainability of ecology is of prime concern in tiger conservation project and any activity that disturbs the ecology including mining or industry in the tiger reserve areas to be prevented. To set up norms and standards for tourism activities in the tiger reserve areas without causing any disturbance or alteration. Maintaining protection measures and future conservation plan, preparing estimation of population of tigers etc are the chief powers and functions of Tiger Conservation Authority.

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According to section 38 Q the Central Government is empowered to provide Grants and loans to the Tiger Conservation Authority and fund for this purpose is constituted as Tiger Conservation Authority Fund. As per section 38 S the Tiger Conservation Authority shall prepare an annual report and audit report shall be laid before the parliament. The tiger reserve areas includes national park and sanctuaries. The establishment of Tiger Reserve areas shall not disturb or affect the rights of scheduled tribes in the forest area. Another important section is section 38 W deals with the alteration in the boundaries of Tiger Reserve areas. No alteration can be made in the boundaries of tiger reserve areas without the approval of National Board of Wild Life and recommendation of the Tiger conservation authority. Tiger Conservation foundation can be established according to section 38 X. Tiger and other endangered species crime control bureau is established according to section 38 Y.

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The conservation of endangered species of tiger is given prime importance in the wild life protection act and the amendment also emphasis on the protection and conservation of tiger population by providing conservation areas of tigers in selected states of the country.